El Campeon Farms within the Santa Monica Mountains preserves a singular breed with the blood of a 200-year-old Spanish Colonial
El Campeon Farms within the Santa Monica Mountains is reviving one of the vital endangered horse breeds on the planet – the Santa Cruz Island Horse (SCI). The younger herd, now as much as 23 horses, stands out as the final of their type, however a scientific breeding program is at the moment underway to extend their numbers.
Because the title suggests, these horses got here from the 98 sq. mile Santa Cruz Island – one of many Channel Islands off our coast. Information present that horses have been first introduced in in 1830 – almost 200 years in the past.
Based on El Campion Farms common supervisor Christy Reich, in an interview with Livestock Conservation, the island’s first horses have been Spanish colonial horses descended from these dropped at the New World on Spanish galleons to Central and South America. Finally, the “padres” (Catholic missionary monks) rode these horses so far as ca.
When Mexico established a penal colony on Santa Cruz Island in 1830, some Spanish horses have been despatched there. With the arrival of sheep farming in 1851, further horses have been introduced in to haul hay and provides from farm to farm—the brand new horses could or could not have been Spanish Colonies.
Based on ship information from 1873 to 1905, small numbers of horses have been periodically delivered or picked up from the island, however the remoted core herd remained and developed into its personal distinct breed. Information recorded in 1874 “about 125 saddle horses and mules,” however nearly half a century later, in 1922, that quantity had dropped to “97 head of horses” as a result of they have been displaced by vehicles.
Finally, ranching turned much less worthwhile on the island and, in accordance with one account, “horses roamed freely and bred amongst themselves for a number of a long time”. In 1984, 40 horses remained, and in 1999, when the Nationwide Park Service took over, 15-19 of the surviving wild horses have been eliminated (accounts differ).
They have been taken to a horse sanctuary in Northern California, however after residing with out predators for over 150 years, the animals had no flight response and have been preyed upon by mountain lions. Then the survivors have been taken to a shelter within the province of Tehama, the place they lived for about 15 years. El Campeon Farms bought 13 animals in 2014 in an effort to avoid wasting them by means of a scientific breeding program.
Santa Cruz Island horses are registered with the Livestock Conservancy and are listed underneath the “Vital” horse class.
Karen Blumenchen, an equine veterinary vet based mostly in Santa Barbara, studied the animals of their pure habitat on the island with UC Davis researchers from 1995-1998, analyzed their DNA, and printed a scientific paper about them. She describes the horses as genetically distinctive with “heirloom” genes that should be preserved.
It described numerous distinct variations that set the Santa Cruz Island horses aside. Notably, they’ve infants at a really completely different time of 12 months than some other horse breed.
“These guys have been giving beginning from November to February,” she mentioned in a cellphone interview. They have not learn the e-book about ready longer hours for daylight. However the change was adaptive and useful to life on that island—for the grass was inexperienced whereas feeding; After which when the grains and seeds got here in, that they had a higher-calorie meals obtainable to realize weight once more throughout weaning.”
Blumenshine discovered that the island’s horses are stronger than different breeds, and get across the island with out vets or foot care.
“As a result of they have been consistently on the transfer, their hooves scraped up sand, and so they have been textbook good,” she mentioned.
The SCI breed can also be shorter and thicker than different horses.
“It was heavier than a number of Spanish breeds, so possibly some draft horses combined in…they appear alike, like they’re associated, however not like some other breed I do know,” Blumenshine mentioned. “They jogged my memory of the previous California horses from after I was a child; with bigger heads and toes, which makes them extra strong. The bigger toes distribute the pressure of every stride over extra sq. centimeters. Additionally they have tough manes, which in all probability additionally got here from draft horses.”
“When US breeders began breeding horses to have a sure look—smaller toes and heads—you lose outbred genes—genes that adapt to the atmosphere.”
One other factor that units the breed aside is its urge for food.
“Island horses additionally don’t want as a lot meals as different horses—in the event you feed them an excessive amount of, they get overweight,” Blumenshine mentioned. We rescued them on the finish of a seven 12 months drought, and so they have been competing for meals with hundreds of sheep, and so they have been nonetheless very wholesome. They subsisted on native grass and imported non-native grasses for grazing.
“My hope in perpetuating the breed is probably to protect a few of the historical genes to go on if we bred them from different breeds,” she mentioned. “There’s worth in preserving these historical genes.”
Reich famous that horse breeds do not survive except folks worth them for being good at one thing, and it was her job to determine what that was. I found their strengths in dressage and dealing, in addition to having unusually calm demeanor.
This additionally makes them useful as remedy horses.
“They’re very calm and relaxed — nothing bothers them. They love residing outdoors,” she mentioned.
The farm suspects there could have been an excessive amount of inbreeding in a small variety of the inhabitants, so they’re working with UC Davis to very rigorously and slowly introduce extra genetic range into the road.
“It was vital to seek out related horses, with calm inclinations and related physique varieties,” mentioned Reich. “We’ve got been capable of finding some matches within the Lusitano and Andalusian bloodlines; they’re at the moment on maintain to see how these offspring develop. We take our management of those island horses very severely.”